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Episode 241: Understanding the Constitution

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The Constitution is referenced a lot, especially when arguing on Facebook about the Supreme Court. But how well do you understand it? We’re talking with author and professor Katie Kennedy about her new book, The Constitution Decoded.

An illustration of the Constitution, with the words We the People

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The Constitution

Has anyone ever told you that Facebook had no right to delete their comment, because they have “free speech”? They probably didn’t know it, but they were referencing the U.S. Constitution—and referencing it wrong! They need Katie Kennedy’s new book, The Constitution Decoded.

To be honest, we could all probably use a refresher on the Constitution. It affects so many aspects of our daily lives, and yet most people probably couldn’t even name five rights that it gives us as people living in the United States.

Katie’s new book brings the Constitution to life in a clear, concise, and yes, fun way. Perfect for students or adults looking to know more about the document that shaped our country’s laws, it lays out the Constitution in bite-sized chunks alongside plain-English translations of what each part means, with some fun facts, vocabulary words, and real-life examples of how the Constitution has affected historical events. It’s also a great way to teach the Constitution to your kids!

Our discussion with Katie touched on many parts of the Constitution that are hyper-relevant today (electoral college, anyone??), but also veered off into some fascinating side notes, such as one of the greatest neckbeards in history, how a C-grade on a term paper led to a Constitutional amendment, and why a couple of Katie’s students thought they had the right to violently overthrow the government!

Katie Kennedy leaning against a wall
Katie Kennedy

More about Katie:

Katie Kennedy has taught college history and American government for thirty years. She currently teaches in Iowa, where she lives with her husband and son. She once caught her then nine-year-old daughter sneak-reading the Constitution under the covers with a flashlight. She’s never been prouder. She is the author of two young adult novels, Learning to Swear in America and What Goes Up.

This Week’s Links

Intro (00:00:11)

Rebecca Levey

Amy Oztan, Amy Ever After

Andrea Smith, technology guru extraordinaire

Katie Kennedy, The Constitution Decoded

Interview with Katie Kennedy (00:01:57)

The Constitution Decoded: A Guide to the Document That Shapes Our Nation, by Katie Kennedy

Horace Greeley’s glorious neckbeard:

Horace Greeley and his neckbeard

A Peculiar Way to Pick a President — NY Times’ The Daily Podcast

How a college term paper led to a constitutional amendment, by Scott Bomboy — Constitution Daily

Bytes of the Week (00:39:20)

20 Dishes That Taste Better on the Second (or Third) Day — NY Times Cooking

The Lincoln Project’s “Good Night, America” (the video Andrea was talking about):


The video Rebecca thought Andrea was talking about:

 

President Reagan’s Morning in America ad:

 

Our 21 Favorite Cases for iPhone 12, by Andrea Smith — Techlicious

Grandma’s Chicken Soup Original Gift Mug & Soup

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Transcript

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Rebecca:
Welcome to Parenting Bytes, this is Rebecca Levey, I’m here today with Amy Oztan of Amy Ever After.

Amy:
Hi.

Rebecca:
Hello! And Andrea Smith, our technology guru…

Andrea:
Hello.

Rebecca:
Extraordinaire. Did I leave out the extraordinaire?

Andrea:
What? Hello.

Rebecca:
I left that piece that I demote Andrea without making

Andrea:
Yeah,

Rebecca:
It.

Andrea:
No longer extraordinaire.

Amy:
Hmm.

Rebecca:
Oh, today on the show, we thought it was be timely, we want to talk about the election because I don’t know if we can talk about it anymore because it’s killing all of us. So it just has to happen. But we decided we would do something that maybe would help us all be a little more informed as citizens. So we have a guest on the show today, Katie Kennedy. She has just authored a book called The Constitution Decoded, a guide to the Document That Shapes Our Nation. And it’s a really cool book because it takes the Constitution and then it breaks it down into like, what does that mean? You know, they decode James Madison is a rambling run on sentences. He did not have an editor and seems so we love this book. Like we learned a ton of stuff talking to her. And I think you will, too. And, you know, as Amy pointed out at one point, like, don’t you want to win arguments with people when they start thinking they’re dropping, like constitutional knowledge on you and they

Andrea:
Exactly,

Rebecca:
Are wrong?

Andrea:
Yep.

Rebecca:
So holidays are coming up, people brush up. But anyway, it’s a great book and we will talk all about it and talk about the Constitution and talk about presidential beards a little bit or loser beards. I

Amy:
Well,

Rebecca:
Know

Amy:
A

Rebecca:
We

Amy:
Little

Rebecca:
Have a

Amy:
Bit.

Rebecca:
Very weird

Andrea:
Man

Rebecca:
Conversation

Andrea:
Hair,

Rebecca:
To the man.

Andrea:
Man hair, I’m calling it.

Rebecca:
Oh, yeah. All right. We will be right back with Katie Kennedy.

Rebecca:
We are back with Katie Kennedy. She is a college instructor of history and American government in Iowa. Thanks for joining us today, Katie.

Katie:
Thank you so much.

Rebecca:
We were super excited to have you on to talk about your book, The Constitution Decoded, a guide to the Document That Shapes Our Nation, we really want to have you on for so many reasons.

Katie:
Yeah.

Rebecca:
We saw this, you know, we kind of jumped at the chance because obviously the election is, you know, approaching very quickly. And in many

Katie:
Right.

Rebecca:
Places, people are already early voting, something that is not in the Constitution, I should say. They did not tell us how and when to vote. They just told us to

Katie:
Except to the stand at the state level, so

Rebecca:
Write.

Katie:
We don’t have a national vote. It’s a state by state.

Rebecca:
I know we’re going to have to get into that. I don’t think people realize the patchwork of laws that hold this country together and what is state and what is

Katie:
Yeah.

Rebecca:
Federal and where the Constitution and maybe therefore the Supreme Court comes into play in those questions. I don’t know, maybe we’ll just start there then, since we have election rules. And why why my ballot in New York looks different than your ballot in Iowa and everything’s different, right? Whenever you hear about how other people vote, I’m always like, wow, really? That’s how you do it.

Katie:
Yeah, well, it’s a federal system, so we have both state level and national level governments and of the supremacy clause in the Constitution makes it very clear that if a state or a state constitution is in conflict with a national or federal level law or constitution, it’s the state that changes. So a state can’t write a law that a state can give people more rights, but it can’t give them less than what they get at the federal level. And in voting is one thing the Constitution says will be done at the state level. So that’s why we don’t all go down and have a uniform ballot, which of course, would be difficult with local elections, too.

Rebecca:
Right,

Katie:
But yeah.

Rebecca:
But it’s interesting, even the mechanisms right now that we’re in more modern times when we have different voting machine options or Maylin

Katie:
Yes.

Rebecca:
Or digital, you know, it’s interesting how much that’s become a patchwork, too, and what that means in terms of

Katie:
Right.

Rebecca:
Security or access.

Katie:
Well, you know, when George Washington was running for things and he didn’t run for office back then, you stood for office, it was unseemly and gentlemanly to act like you wanted it. So you Simply E stood for office,

Amy:
Yeah,

Katie:
But

Amy:
That

Katie:
You

Amy:
Was

Katie:
Were.

Amy:
A really great criticism in Hamilton when they were like, dude is actually openly campaigning. What’s

Rebecca:
Huh?

Amy:
Up with that?

Katie:
That’s just embarrassing. Yeah, but, well, Washington, when he was well, when they were trying decide who would be the general of the Continental Army against the British. Washington said he didn’t want it, but he did show up in his uniform every day to remind. Yeah, just to remind people he had the experience. So, you

Rebecca:
Uno

Katie:
Know,

Rebecca:
False modesty, he was like,

Katie:
There

Rebecca:
Sneaky.

Katie:
You go. Well, one thing we forget about Washington is that in his day, he was a head turner. He was considered pretty hot. And today we think of him as, you know, wooden teeth and big nose and so on. But he was quite the head turner. Oh,

Rebecca:
Well, he was so tall,

Katie:
Well,

Rebecca:
Right,

Katie:
In the broad shoulders

Rebecca:
Especially

Katie:
And the

Rebecca:
Then,

Katie:
Carriage,

Rebecca:
Yeah.

Katie:
The confidence and so on. But I’m going a bit afield here.

Rebecca:
I know it’s fun to talk about Washington.

Katie:
Yeah, I shouldn’t be talking about the hotness of the founding fathers, I guess. Anyway, we’re talking about the elections and so on and that it’s Analon state by state basis down at a patchwork kind of basis. And of course, the Electoral college plays into that, that the states have their Electoral College votes, and that’s done on a state by state basis. So when you get into electoral college issues, which is a huge thing and a big source of a lot of interest to people today, I think that’s that on a state by state basis. And that is part of what allows for some of the nastiness that has occurred with the Electoral college and some of the what many people feel is a threat to democracy if if every option were utilized.

Andrea:
I would love to talk about that a little bit, because when I first when I first saw your book, you know, that was the first thing that appealed to me was I think so many people just don’t really I mean, even though everyone knows we have an electoral college, I don’t think people really understand that, like, two little

Katie:
Yeah.

Andrea:
Counties in one state can completely sway an election.

Katie:
Yeah, well, the one thing we try to do with The Constitution Decoded was to make just to make the document plain to people, just to have the the text translated so that people could understand it themselves, give them tools to understand it. But that being said, we did want to do the sidebars and make sure that people do understand that electoral college. I think most at least most adults understand that when you and I go to the polls, we don’t vote for, say, Donald Trump or Joe Biden. We vote for the people who will then vote for them. And those people are called electors, which just means voter. They’re the people who will actually do the voting. And so, of course, it’s actually a much smaller vote. But there is no there are a number of things that can go wrong with that or can produce anomalous results, perhaps I should say. One is that if there’s a tie, it goes to the House of Representatives or if one candidate doesn’t get the majority, it goes to the House of Representatives. And once it’s in the House of Representatives, each state gets one vote. So Delaware gets the same amount of votes as California. So. Well, for example, right now, if Joe Biden and Donald Trump were to tie on November 3rd or 4th or 5th or 6th or however this works out

Amy:
Election month.

Katie:
Right, Democrats hold the House of Representatives. But if you go up by state by state, one vote, Republicans have the majority because there are more states, but fewer people for the GOP. But in 1824, there were five candidates who were running. Andrew Jackson was the kind of the dark horse he was from out West and Tennessee. Nobody took him that seriously. Always a mistake with Jackson. Always take

Rebecca:
Now,

Katie:
Him seriously.

Rebecca:
It’s for sure.

Katie:
Yeah. The president most likely to shoot you was always what

Rebecca:
Yeah.

Katie:
I figured. But if you walked around with several bullets in his body. But anyway, Jackson won the most popular votes. But of course, it’s the Electoral College that elects you. He also won the most Electoral College votes, but he did not win a majority. He got a plurality. He got more than anybody else, but not more than half, because there were five candidates. So it went to the House of Representatives and they chose somebody else. And Jackson’s supporters were outraged. Their man got the most popular and electoral college votes and did not become president in 1824. So that obviously was a kind of an interesting situation after the Civil War, when Ulysses S. Grant, the victorious union general, was running for reelection, he was running against Horace Greeley New York newspaperman. Grealy, by the way, has the finest neckbeard in American history. In my opinion, everyone should should do it on a search and search for some pictures of him. He had quite the main around clean shaven chin. But after the popular election, but before the Electoral college met, Grealy died now.

Rebecca:
Oh, my God, that’s my fear, that’s like my fear right now.

Katie:
Well, it’s an intriguing sort of thing. Now, granted one and he had one very clearly and convincingly, so that took a lot of the pressure

Rebecca:
Ok.

Katie:
Off. And so Grant got his electoral college votes. They didn’t know what to do with the others that the Constitution didn’t say. So they simply split them up among some minor candidates. And it all it didn’t change the result. It worked OK, but that was strange.

Rebecca:
That’s like everybody got a participation trophy

Katie:
There you go.

Rebecca:
Long

Katie:
That’s a nice way to look at it.

Rebecca:
Ago,

Katie:
That’s the beginning of that.

Rebecca:
You know, one of the things I was always surprised about last week, The New York Times in their daily podcast, did one on the Electoral college and I I was shocked to learn so many things.

Katie:
Mm

Rebecca:
One

Katie:
Hmm.

Rebecca:
That I thought, you know, I thought I knew a lot, but I did not know enough about the Electoral college. And one was that in the Constitution, it does not say how the states should apportion those votes towards that. And so in that, James Madison was very upset when he saw states were doing winner take all that their intention had been or his intention was that the electors would be divided up in proportion to the popular vote they got in each state. And not that the majority that wins the state popular vote, that all the electors would then go to that person.

Katie:
Yeah, well, and, you know, the founders or the framers of the Constitution didn’t all agree on every issue, which is one of the difficulties of originalism, of trying to figure out what the document meant originally because they didn’t all agree on things. And, well, that’s why the. But you’re right. Or that the Bill of Rights, sometimes people will say, well, obviously, you know, the Fifth Amendment is more important than the eighth because it’s listed first earlier. That has nothing to do with it. When they were trying to decide how they would deal with amendments, James Madison wanted to insert them into the original document in the place where they would logically go. And so something legislative would go in Article one and so on, something executive in Article two and Roger Sherman wanted to list them at the end. But Sherman, of course, Sherman wins. I mean, we they are listed at the end of the document, 27 amendments at this point. But while he was, you know, kind of killing time in a meeting, Sherman simply listed them in the order that they would be split into the original document, if that’s what they want to doing. And then when it’s time to place them at the end, obviously, he just, you know, swept in the list that he had.

Rebecca:
Oh, that’s so interesting.

Katie:
Yeah, so, I mean, sometimes there are. That’s that’s how some things wind up happening, right. And

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
Even with the Electoral college, you know, the framers had to create this Frankenstein monster that they hoped was a Frankenstein beauty of a government and then electrify it and set it into motion without being able to try it a few ways this way in that way. So they put the Electoral college in and just hoped it would work. But one thing I think a lot of people don’t know about that, and that is more in play now than it ever has been, is the Constitution does not require the states to hold a popular vote. Is Simply E says that they will choose how to apportion the electors. But after the Bush v. Gore election, it was Florida was the the big sticking point and all eyes were on Florida, the Florida state legislature, which was, you know, controlled by one party, in that case, the Republican Party, considered simply negating the popular vote if it came out, you know, not the way they wanted, and announcing that Florida’s electoral votes went to Bush, that could happen. It typically would not happen after a vote because people

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
Get a little dicey about that. But a governor could simply announce, you know, Montana’s governor, New York’s governor could simply announce that the Electoral College votes go to this or that candidate without giving the people a chance to vote at all. And it was state legislature could do that. So if you had enough state legislatures or governors of a particular party and typically there is a majority of one party or the other, I mean almost by default. Right. And you had some sort of authoritarian strongmen who wanted to essentially seize power. You someone who was not devoted to democracy and the will of the people, they could simply announce that this

Andrea:
This

Katie:
Is

Andrea:
Is.

Katie:
Who they voted for. This is who’s won. So you could have a heavily Democratic state with a Republican governor, a heavily Republican state with a Democratic governor, simply have that person announce. And then once you have someone in power like that, it gets harder and harder to preserve your democratic institutions because there’s a lot they can do to undermine them. So it’s a it’s a fascinating quirk of the electoral college.

Amy:
I’m.

Andrea:
You know, I think I may have listened to the same podcast on the Electoral college is

Rebecca:
Yeah.

Andrea:
Rebeccah or maybe it was The Washington Post, but I also learned a ton in it that I wasn’t aware of, including how close the United States actually came from overturning the Electoral college. Do you think that that there’s ever a chance of that happening?

Katie:
Well, I’m guessing, of course, I’m not an oracle, so I

Andrea:
Optimum

Katie:
Am guessing.

Andrea:
Word think.

Katie:
Yes, I suspect that because so many more people are paying attention to politics and to elections right now, and it appears from the early voting that people are really energized and interested, I would think that there will be more attention paid to that. Now, right now, the Electoral college favors the GOP, so Republican lawmakers would not have any incentive to change it. And so that’s you know, that could be an issue. But I do think that there will be another look at that. You know, it would take a constitutional remedy, either a new convention or an amendment in order to change that. So it’s a major fix. But I do think that there’s probably enough interest, enough attention paid right now. And I don’t think there are very many Americans who want to give up their right to vote for president of all things.

Rebecca:
All right,

Katie:
So.

Rebecca:
Yeah, that makes so much I mean, it is one of those, you know, we haven’t had one was the last amendment, was it the right for 18 year olds was at the last

Katie:
No,

Rebecca:
Sat

Katie:
The 27th,

Rebecca:
The last, which is that.

Katie:
The 27th Amendment, it actually is a fascinating story, but it was proposed by James Madison and Madison did not win the most recent one. It says that Congress can’t vote itself a pay raise,

Rebecca:
Knomo.

Katie:
Which just means that if they vote a pay raise, it’s after the next election before it goes into effect. But a 19 year old college student in Texas found out that James Madison, when he proposed what became the Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments, had actually proposed 12 amendments and being the very first ones and they were just learning what they were doing. Madison did not put a time limit on those and those amendments. And so Gregory Watson, this student at the University of Texas, wrote a paper for his class saying that he thought the other two were still in play because timber ratified. One would no longer make sense. It had to do with the House of Representatives and that the population today makes it not make sense.

Rebecca:
You know.

Katie:
But the other one was, was this Congress can’t vote itself a pay raise. And he argued that if states continue to to ratify them, it could become a constitutional amendment. His teacher was not impressed and gave him a C, and Watson was mad about his grade. And so he began writing to state legislatures, asking them to ratify this amendment so that he could be proven right, basically. And right then Congress should vote itself a pay raise. And a lot of people got mad about it. And states began, in fact, to ratify that constitution. A lot of them I mean, it took very few had done it at that point, but they got to the point where, you know, enough states have ratified it and since there was no time limit. So it’s the constitution, the amendment that took the longest from the time it was proposed until

Rebecca:
That’s

Katie:
The time that it

Rebecca:
So funny.

Katie:
Came to the thirty five years after she gave him a seat. Watson’s teacher changed his grades, Renee. So

Rebecca:
That’s

Amy:
Hatzolah

Rebecca:
Awesome.

Amy:
Is.

Katie:
The power went irritated. STUDENT Right.

Rebecca:
That’s so funny, I wish we could do that with the Equal Rights Amendment, like I feel like that started to gain some steam over the past couple of years and it’s so close.

Katie:
Well, it actually yeah, the problem is that that one did have

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
A time limit put in, so it does need to be restarted. But but there has been right. There has been some momentum. So if they if they put it back in or if they simply fail to put any kind of time limit on it.

Rebecca:
Right. That’s so interesting.

Amy:
You know, we’re we’re kind of getting into the nitty gritty of of different amendments, but what I love about the book is that whichever one you want to talk about, whichever one you want to argue about on Facebook, it’s laid out so well, like you can just go to the part that you want to talk about. The actual text is laid out on one page and then like a real simple English translation on the next page, it is so concise and so clear and it seems kind of geared towards students. But I think every American adult could get something out of this book.

Katie:
Oh, thank you. We were trying to give people the tools to to understand the document themselves, that the first draft they asked me, the publisher asked me to do it as a kind of a summary. And it’s so much easier to be clear and concise and to to sound good when you do it that way. But then we looked at it and I didn’t like it and the editor didn’t like it because, you know, it’s easy to tell somebody what it says, but we wanted them to be able to read it themselves

Amy:
Knomo.

Katie:
And to understand themselves what it says. So we redid the whole thing and and put it in the side by side translations, which was hard because James Madison was a fan of the passive voice

Rebecca:
She’s using her.

Katie:
And he and he had some nasty, nasty sentences that, you know, a few of those things, it especially about the electoral college just go on and on and on. And so we had to divide them up into smaller chunks. So he gave me a few linguistic problems. James and I are not as close as we once were, but but that was a fun thing to do. And there were a few little things that I would have liked to have put in. We started with many, many more history sidebars, and then the editor pointed out it should not be a thousand page book. And for example, James Madison had a frostbite scar on his nose. And I thought that was information that kids should have. Oh, but that’s why I’m not an editor.

Andrea:
Well, you know what you said about Horace Greeley, I immediately went and looked it up and wow, that is quite the neckbeard.

Katie:
Right, right. You see my point?

Andrea:
I mean,

Katie:
Yeah.

Andrea:
There’s some there is something for everyone in there. And it does make you want to do a little bit more research to further your own knowledge, I

Katie:
Yeah,

Andrea:
Have to say.

Katie:
Well, we thought, too, that especially with all the distance learning right now and so many people home schooling who didn’t plan to were really prepared. We’ve heard from a lot of adults, parents and teachers who have a copy hidden in the drawer and you to help them help their students understand the document. And I’m just so glad that it’s helping people.

Andrea:
You know, I do want to ask about one thing, because whenever, you know, somebody says something outrageous, which seems to have happened a lot in the last four years, people and people start yelling free speech, free speech. I have a right to free speech. And I just it just boggles my mind how misused and how misunderstood that is. You know, where you have to explain to people you can get up on a street corner and say whatever you want to say against the government, but you cannot in a private institution like a school or a college or a you know, even a social media site that, you know, has rules, you you are not entitled to say what you want to say. You have to follow those rules. You know, I think that just people just think that that means you can say anything you want anywhere.

Katie:
Well, yeah, and usually it’s a matter of saying something insulting or threatening to somebody else. Free speech is a complicated thing. For example, the Constitution says with the Supreme Court says it says it means what the court says. And so that is the body that interprets that. And it has changed slightly over time. And I mean, John Adams, administration of Federalist administration, Adams, the second president, put in a sedition law, making it illegal to criticize the president, making it illegal to publicly criticize anything the government had done. I don’t know anybody who has not criticized something that the president or the government at some level, you know, they haven’t criticized something in the past week. But with the John Adams administration, federalist administration, Adams is the second president put in a sedition law which made it illegal to say anything against the president, anything that would make him put him in ill repute. So you couldn’t criticize the president, they made it or anything the government had done. They didn’t protect the vice president because at the beginning of the country, whoever got the most votes, the Electoral College votes, became president and whoever was second became vice president.

Amy:
So crazy.

Katie:
The Constitution was written before the U.S. had political parties and with the assumption that the US would not have political parties. So that’s one of the things like when you see a straight party line vote on impeachment, they never anticipated that. They thought people would simply look at charges and not vote on partizan interests, but on, you know, for the good of their country if the person was not guilty or if the person was guilty. So there are some things that perhaps the party system is mucked up a bit. But you can imagine Donald Trump with Joe Biden as his vice president or Joe

Rebecca:
Oh,

Katie:
Biden

Rebecca:
My

Katie:
With

Rebecca:
God.

Katie:
Donald Trump as his vice president.

Amy:
Oh, my

Rebecca:
Or

Amy:
God.

Rebecca:
Donald Trump with Hillary or the other way around.

Katie:
Yes, exactly. Exactly.

Rebecca:
I might

Katie:
So

Rebecca:
Have been

Katie:
Clearly

Rebecca:
Crazy.

Katie:
That doesn’t work. And that’s been changed in, in fact, for Thomas Jefferson, tied with his vice president at one point, because what they were supposed to do was that one of the electors was supposed to not vote for vice president because the ballots didn’t make it clear who you were voting for. It just had the person’s name, but on which office and everybody knew who was running for president and who for vice president. But his vice presidential candidate was Aaron Burr, the great scoundrels of American history, the guy who shot Hamilton, the guy who tried to detach the western United States across the US, its western territories, the guy who tried to get England to invade the United States in his later life, certainly an American traitor. And Baer decided to go for it. So when he found that he was tied with Jefferson, Jefferson expected him just to step back and say, well, yeah, obviously I’m the VP and Burton do that. And it went to the House of Representatives because it was a tie, even though it was the two running mates, not not Jefferson and the guy who was running against and they took 36 ballots before Paul Thomas Jefferson is standing there with his mouth hanging open, staring at them. Right. Take thirty six votes before they decide that. Yeah, they will give us to Thomas Jefferson. But that had to be changed as well so that it’s clear if you’re voting for president or for vice president. So that can’t happen.

Amy:
Yeah, that does seem like something that should be clear.

Rebecca:
A recipe

Katie:
Yeah,

Rebecca:
For disaster.

Katie:
Right.

Amy:
You know, I’m starting to wonder the more we talk about this, why we are held up as a beacon of democracy.

Katie:
Well, I believe actually it’s possible that I’m wrong on this, but actually I believe that our rating that has slipped and we no longer are considered a sort of, you know, top flight democracy.

Amy:
That seems right.

Katie:
Yeah,

Rebecca:
Well, let’s hope not in the long run.

Katie:
Yeah, well, and you’d asked about free speech. I’m sorry, I think I got away from that a bit, but there are limits to that fraudulent advertising, child pornography, things like that that the court has ruled. You can’t shout fire in a crowded theater was the example that was given because obviously that’s life threatening. On the other hand, you have cases like Tinker v. Des Moines, where Mary Beth Tinker during the Vietnam War wore a black armband to school and got in trouble for it. And her parents took it to the Supreme Court and won. And the court ruled that you do not students do not lose their freedom of speech at the schoolhouse gates. You don’t give up your freedom of speech.

Rebecca:
What do you think is the biggest misconception people have about the Constitution, what’s the one thing you hear repeated over and over again that you say to yourself, no, that’s not the Constitution.

Katie:
Yeah, well, in my family, people claim to have a constitutional right to the last piece of pie, which is definitely not in there. I’ve looked at it through what, the last piece of pie? I think it is freedom of speech. I think people believe that they have the right to say anything they want, regardless of consequences, is that regardless of consequences, it’s an issue. I have had students argue seriously, not not trying to be funny on more than one occasion, on multiple occasions, that what they wrote on their exam is correct because they have freedom of speech. So, yeah, I mean, it’s funny, but also appalling. Right.

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
So that the literally I have to give them an A because that’s their opinion and because it’s that’s their opinion that makes it right. I had a couple of students in American government classes who were well, it was in Michigan. They were Michigan Militia members of those folks have been in the news recently.

Rebecca:
Wow.

Katie:
And I looked for their their names, but they were not among the people who were trying to kidnap and murder the governor. But the both of them use separate classes, came up and simply told me about their plans to overthrow the government. Both of them said you start by shooting police officers because it reduces the number of police officers you have to deal with. And also they’ll be focused on the murder of their own more than what’s going on outside. You know, so you start by simply randomly shooting some some police officers. But both of them felt very strongly, passionately that they had a right to overthrow the government. And the Constitution gives them the right to overthrow the government violently by shooting people, including their neighbors

Amy:
I’m sorry, these are students of

Katie:
Think,

Amy:
Yours.

Katie:
Yes, they were in both cases, they were middle aged. I teach college, but they were students who simply randomly during a class break told me about their plans to violently overthrow the United States government. And and they base that on the feeling that they did not have representation in Congress. And if they did not have representation, they had the right to overthrow the government. The government was a tyranny. And I said, what makes you feel you don’t have representation? Well, their candidate lost the election. So in both cases, I said that’s not a lack of representation. That’s losing an election and that happens

Rebecca:
All

Katie:
To

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
Everybody. And it happens about half the time. And you need to get used to it. And I also point out to both that their willingness to violently overthrow the United States government or to attack elected officials, that makes them a domestic enemy.

Amy:
Yeah.

Katie:
And in both cases, I got an escort to walking back to my car because they were truly scary people.

Rebecca:
Uh.

Katie:
But I felt they needed to know that. But the idea that if you lose the election, you don’t have representation. So the person, your senator, your representative does not represent you. I have elected officials I didn’t vote for and I did vote against. But tough for me. That doesn’t mean I get to shoot them. That, you know, that doesn’t mean that that I get to overthrow the government.

Amy:
And I do think that that’s why, you know, the rhetoric that, you know, our current president likes to spout off about how, you know, he’s you know, let me let me say the opposite. Biden’s claim that he will be the the president of everybody is so important, because

Katie:
It is.

Amy:
Even if you didn’t vote for him, he is your representative. And that’s that’s so important.

Katie:
Absolutely, and any elected official needs to understand that they are the representative, they are supposed to represent the interests of all of their constituents, whether it’s a state representative or a senator who represents the whole state or whomever, or the president who is supposed to take care of the whole country. Whether or not a certain group of people, you know, didn’t vote for you doesn’t matter. You don’t allocate respirators to the people who voted for you or something like that. It’s just not how you do that. And people

Rebecca:
In

Katie:
Need to

Rebecca:
A normal world, you wouldn’t do that,

Katie:
Know.

Rebecca:
But as New Yorkers tell you, it is it is it’s an interesting thing to be on the other end of that where I think it’s the first. Well, it’s not the first time in my life because I’ve lived in New York for my whole life when Ford told New York to drop dead. But it is it is a weird thing, I think, when it’s when the politicians twist around those ideas rather than the populous. Like I not that I understand a disgruntled voter being upset that their person lost,

Katie:
Sure.

Rebecca:
But to that extreme. But I get the initial, you know, feeling of

Katie:
Sure.

Rebecca:
Being sad. Your person lost, whereas seeing people who have been put into those positions of power decide they don’t want to represent everyone seems very strange. And I do wonder there’s nothing in the Constitution, right. That says once you’re president, you are president for all.

Katie:
Well.

Rebecca:
It just is there is there a constitutional thing we can use here?

Katie:
That was assumed,

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
I

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
Mean, of

Rebecca:
It’s a

Katie:
Course

Rebecca:
Norm,

Katie:
You

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
Do.

Rebecca:
It’s a human it’s a human thing, but it’s not.

Katie:
I mean, it’s nothing in the Constitution that says that, you know, you should put the toilet seat down, but you should

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
Maybe that’s the Twenty Eighth Amendment. I don’t know. Oh,

Rebecca:
Maybe they didn’t have to worry about that because there were no women in the government

Katie:
There

Rebecca:
For

Katie:
You go.

Rebecca:
A long time.

Katie:
Yeah.

Rebecca:
Yeah, it’s a it’s a crazy time. So I might have one last question for you. And it is about the Supreme Court. It has seemed in the last I don’t know how long, maybe 30 years, 40 years, that the Supreme Court, the checks and balances are a little out of whack.

Katie:
Yes, they’re.

Rebecca:
And at the end, we have the Supreme Court has been almost I don’t want to say making laws, but because Congress hasn’t really it feels like the Supreme Court has been the arbiter of, like, how we’re going to do things, what the law should be, rather than just interpreting the Constitution. Am I crazy? Like, is that is that happening?

Katie:
The court has been more activist in some ways, and typically liberals are happier with that. Conservatives are not happy with that, but both sides typically are OK with it if it goes in their

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
Favor. So, for example, you know, in 2000, the Supreme Court decided the presidential election, you know, nothing could be more activist than that, basically. But

Rebecca:
All

Katie:
Since

Rebecca:
Right.

Katie:
They decided for Bush or decided to stop the count so that they were not allowed to recount and Cecchini, you know, the anomalies effectively decided for for Bush conservatives should not launch any complaints about that approach. That would be. So both parties will in both both groups, ends of the political spectrum like anybody else. You know, if it goes your way, you’re happy with it. It’s it’s going to be a very interesting situation. Now, for the first time, we have a majority of the Supreme Court appointed by the loser of the popular election. And the idea that there could be a majority on the court, which has such wide influence on such a huge ripple effects. People talk about Roe v. Wade, but Griswold v. Connecticut in 1965

Rebecca:
Hmm.

Katie:
Was the decision that made it legal for married couples to use contraception. And the right to use contraceptives is based on the same foundation as Roe. So when Roe goes, the right to use contraceptives could as well. And potential for for IVF, fertilization and some things like that. I don’t want to upset anybody who’s I think people should not. We’re dealing with fertility issues right now, should not panic and should not I don’t want, you know, cause more pain for people. But it will be interesting to see once you knock that foundation down, how far that will go. My guess is, and this is just a guess, that contraception use will probably be safe. I don’t think there are a lot of states that want to go after that. But someone could could launch a challenge to that. So interesting times. But, yes, checks and balance that the presidency has for over 100 years now has been in ascendancy. Congress has not been perhaps doing its duty. And the court now has a majority appointed by by the minority.

Rebecca:
Wow, that’s a cheery note.

Katie:
I’m so sorry,

Rebecca:
No, but

Amy:
It’s

Rebecca:
You

Amy:
Not

Rebecca:
Know

Amy:
Your

Rebecca:
What,

Amy:
Fault.

Rebecca:
You point out why it’s so important to vote, why it’s

Katie:
It

Rebecca:
So important

Katie:
Is.

Rebecca:
To understand the Constitution, which is the foundation of our country, and not just let other people tell you what it says,

Katie:
Absolutely.

Rebecca:
But like get the book.

Andrea:
Yeah.

Katie:
This is a revolutionary moment in our history, and when you have a revolution, everything is on the table, so you don’t just have to go back to the status quo. It is possible to remake the world and make a better society, make a better country. So as the people go to the polls and say, vote this this beautiful, beautiful experiment of self-government, of the right of the people to control their own destinies, we have the chance not just to retrieve the vision that we’ve we’ve had and perhaps never quite lived up to, but even to make a better country.

Andrea:
So go vote

Rebecca:
Well, that’s

Katie:
Yes, so

Rebecca:
A much

Amy:
Yeah.

Katie:
Go vote.

Rebecca:
Better

Andrea:
Yes,

Rebecca:
Note.

Andrea:
Go vote because it matters.

Katie:
It does

Rebecca:
It

Katie:
Matter.

Rebecca:
It does matter. All right. Well, thank you so much,

Katie:
Thank

Rebecca:
Kitty.

Katie:
You.

Rebecca:
This was a great discussion. We’ll have a link to the book where the people can find The Constitution Decoded. Yeah, decode

Katie:
Great.

Rebecca:
It. People like it. It needs to be. This was great.

Amy:
If

Rebecca:
Thank

Amy:
Only

Rebecca:
You so

Amy:
To win

Rebecca:
Much.

Amy:
Arguments with your relatives.

Katie:
Exactly,

Rebecca:
That’s right.

Katie:
Exactly.

Rebecca:
That’s worth everything. You might be having a Zoom Thanksgiving, don’t you want? You could all read the Constitution together and

Katie:
Well, we’re doing

Rebecca:
Argue.

Katie:
Zoom Thanksgiving, and I hadn’t thought of that, but that’s a way to make sure we never get invited back. I guess so.

Rebecca:
It’s on Zoom who needs to be invited, so.

Katie:
Good point. Well, thank you

Rebecca:
Thanks

Katie:
So much.

Rebecca:
So much, Katie.

Katie:
Ok,

Rebecca:
Thank

Andrea:
Thank

Rebecca:
You.

Andrea:
You.

Rebecca:
Bye.

Katie:
Bye bye.

Rebecca:
We will be right back with our Bytes of the Week…

Rebecca:
So Halloween is going to look a little different this year, but just because you don’t have tons of treats doesn’t mean you’re going to have to have lots of tricks. Amy, I know you’re doing something really cool with your trick or treating set up.

Amy:
Yeah, I was going to say I have tons of treats and I may end up with all of them if there’s no trick or treating, but I, I figure it’s better to have them and just have them left over than to not have them and have people like banging on my door begging for candy. So I’m going to be at the top of my stoop wrapped in like five blankets with probably a space heater out there because it’s supposed to be cold. And I’ve got this PVC pipe chute that attaches to my my railing with them with little ties. And so I’m more than six feet away from the trick or treaters. They could just put their bag underneath the bottom and I can shoot candy down to them.

Rebecca:
Look at you, you’re so like imaginative and honest, you made your own project. Well, if you are a parent out there wondering how you’re still going to make trick or treating fun and people aren’t putting up really cool shoots or neighborhood, check out KiwiCo hands on science and art projects so your little goolies won’t go batty with boredom. Instead, they’ll be inspired by KiwiCo is fun, innovative, creative, problem solving creates and they get delivered right to your door. It’s kind of like trick or treating comes to you with only the treat. You love it. So if your child wants super cool hands on Crete’s delivered every month, this is what you should check out. KiwiCo KiwiCo is redefining learning with hands on projects that build confidence, creativity, critical thinking skills. There’s something for every kid or kid at heart. A KiwiCo.

Amy:
Or teenager like don’t

Rebecca:
Oh, my God.

Amy:
Need isn’t just kids, I had so much fun with my son doing this, it was like we had a blast and it was actually right before he went to live with my mom for a while with his grandmother. So it’s like such a happy memory of the last activity that we did together. And and I still have it. Like it’s not just something that you do right then and then you’re done with it. Like after we built this thing, this lightbox. Now, there are a whole bunch of activities that I can do with my daughter because now they say, OK, now you can take tape and you can make this maze and you can do this and like so it’s not just like a one time thing and then you’re done. They also give you follow up activities with the thing that you built, which I thought was really cool.

Rebecca:
Yeah, that’s so great, too, because we’re running out of things for our kids to do, right? Everyone out there is like, please, so if you could do something that’s like engaging and hands on and creative and then use it again in a different way, that’s what you’re looking for right now. You can get 30 percent off your first month, plus free shipping on any crate line at KiwiCo dotcom parenting. That’s k i w i c o dotcom slash parenting.

Rebecca:
We are back with our Bytes of the Week. Amy, what do you have?

Amy:
Well, as I sit here shivering in my office, it’s getting cold in parts of the country, it’s definitely feeling like fall. Halloween’s coming up. And I just made the mistake of looking at the forecast. It’s going to be like 40 degrees while I’m sitting on my stoop. I’m

Rebecca:
That

Amy:
Not

Rebecca:
Never

Amy:
Looking

Rebecca:
Happens

Amy:
Forward

Rebecca:
Anymore.

Amy:
To I know a 2020 man, but I got an email from New York Times cooking a few days ago that just seemed perfect for this this time of year when not only do you want a bunch of, like, warm Casaroli soupy type things.

Andrea:
Youm.

Amy:
Yeah. But it’s also it’s a great collection of recipes. It’s 20 dishes that taste better on the second or third day.

Rebecca:
Oh,

Amy:
Oh,

Rebecca:
I need

Amy:
So.

Rebecca:
That now because I’m only cooking for two and I don’t have the recipes, we don’t have the patience for that. So I have so many leftovers.

Amy:
Right, and but like if it’s a leftover that tastes great a few

Rebecca:
Yeah.

Amy:
Days later, then just so good to like, you know, if you make a big pot of chickpea vegetable soup with Parmesan, curried shepherd’s pie, you know, like all these these and there are desserts, too. There’s some desserts in there, too. So it’s just a great collection. And I will put a link to it because I don’t want to make the meat ones. But there are a lot of vegetarian ones in there, too. Something

Rebecca:
Cool.

Amy:
For everybody.

Rebecca:
All right.

Andrea:
I, too, am cooking for two, for one, but I say two because my downstairs neighbor doesn’t like to cook, she’s 80 and she’s,

Amy:
Uh.

Andrea:
You know, she just eats frozen food with high sodium, which is so bad.

Rebecca:
Knomo.

Andrea:
So whenever I cook, I actually do like last night, I gave her a really good chicken with diced tomatoes and fresh basil for my garden

Amy:
Oh,

Andrea:
And sauteed spinach because I try to make her eat vegetables.

Amy:
Yes.

Andrea:
So I do try to cook for two and then I freeze like one or two leftover portions. So

Amy:
This would be great for that.

Andrea:
That would be awesome. OK, so my bites actually have to kind of quick. One is The Lincoln Project, which we’ve talked about and we all love they had

Rebecca:
Wait,

Andrea:
And

Rebecca:
I don’t love them,

Andrea:
You don’t love them.

Amy:
Yeah,

Rebecca:
Don’t buy

Amy:
I

Rebecca:
Me in,

Andrea:
Ok,

Rebecca:
Don’t

Amy:
I

Rebecca:
Let me

Amy:
Was

Rebecca:
In.

Amy:
Going to say I love what

Andrea:
I love

Amy:
They

Andrea:
What they

Amy:
Do,

Andrea:
Do.

Amy:
I don’t love them.

Andrea:
Ok, that’s fair.

Rebecca:
Yes,

Andrea:
And I think

Rebecca:
I’m

Andrea:
I’d have

Rebecca:
Very

Andrea:
To agree

Rebecca:
Dubious

Andrea:
With that.

Rebecca:
About what they’re going to do with the money that’s left over after the election.

Andrea:
Well,

Rebecca:
I’m

Andrea:
I’m

Rebecca:
Very

Andrea:
Curious

Rebecca:
Dubious.

Andrea:
About what

Rebecca:
Don’t

Andrea:
Happens

Rebecca:
Give them money.

Andrea:
To them after the election. That’s what I

Rebecca:
They

Andrea:
Want

Rebecca:
Go

Andrea:
To know.

Rebecca:
Back to being Republicans who chose Sarah Palin as John McCain’s running

Andrea:
Yeah,

Rebecca:
Mate. That’s

Amy:
Yeah,

Rebecca:
What they do.

Andrea:
Ok, so

Amy:
Literally.

Andrea:
Then let me rephrase.

Rebecca:
But anyway, go

Andrea:
I

Rebecca:
Ahead.

Andrea:
Love what they’re doing and I love

Rebecca:
Yes,

Andrea:
Some of their

Rebecca:
Me

Andrea:
Ads

Rebecca:
Too.

Andrea:
And I love what they’re standing for at this moment in time.

Rebecca:
Yes.

Andrea:
And they just came out with a new video. I think it’s like a minute long. It’s called Good Night America. And it’s a mom who goes in to wake up her son the morning after election night. And he says, who won? And she says, Trump. And it goes from there. And it’s just mind boggling. And it just gave me goosebumps. And so I’m not going to give it away, but go watch it. It’s it’s

Rebecca:
It’s

Amy:
I

Rebecca:
A

Andrea:
Like

Rebecca:
Riff

Amy:
Haven’t

Andrea:
A minute

Amy:
Seen

Rebecca:
On the Reagan

Andrea:
One.

Amy:
That

Rebecca:
Commercial,

Andrea:
Yeah,

Amy:
Right,

Rebecca:
Right?

Amy:
The Morning

Rebecca:
It’s

Amy:
In

Rebecca:
A riff

Andrea:
Yes.

Amy:
America

Rebecca:
On Morning

Amy:
Right.

Rebecca:
In

Andrea:
Yes,

Rebecca:
America. Yeah.

Andrea:
Exactly. And yeah. And then the other one is very self promoting. If you’re getting a new iPhone 12. I started out last week writing twelve great cases for your new iPhone 12 and it turned into 21 cases for your iPhone Drone Home

Rebecca:
Oh,

Andrea:
Because

Rebecca:
My goodness.

Andrea:
I kept finding more and more. And now I think I’m going to have to go buy an iPhone 12 because I found all these amazing cases from, you know, my my candy shell inked from spec with flowers and purple to like solid colors to the beautiful nomad leather cases and folio cases. And then there’s a bandoleer over the shoulder across body strap case with Foleo slots. So all you need to do is carry your phone, you know, with your credit cards, your license, hands free. I love them. So that got posted yesterday on Tekla shares. And I will put up a link to that, because if you’re looking for a new iPhone, check them out or looking for a new iPhone case, check them out

Rebecca:
Wow, I like that Andrew’s getting a new phone just for the case.

Andrea:
Just for the case, because I can get a new purple flower case.

Rebecca:
So funny. All right, so my vote this week, it’s also food there we’re heading into I’m not even talking about covid, although I guess I have to to intro why I’m doing this. My one of my daughters is in quarantine right now because she was contact traced because one of her good friends tested positive, by the way, false positive, has now had a negative test, were waiting for the second negative test.

Andrea:
Uno.

Rebecca:
So she may be getting out of quarantine early and not 40 days of his second test comes back negative as well. Anyway, that’s a different story. But she’s been in quarantine and she actually has a cold. So then she was given UShip, covid, but now she’s had two negative tests in a row. So she just has a good old fashioned cold. And so she’s in quarantine, which is very sad. And they sort of deliver sad meals to them every

Amy:
Oh.

Rebecca:
Day. Quarantine, like you sort of get what you get and you don’t get to choose. So there is a company called Grandma’s Chicken Soup

Amy:
Well, the.

Rebecca:
And it’s really good soup. I’m very picky about chicken soup. It’s like real chicken and delicious broth and carrots and celery and big giant noodles. And it comes in a big giant like jar with a huge mug that you could eat the soup because that was key because she has no even though she’s in a quarantine apartment, it had no utensils, no claim to know anything.

Amy:
Oh, my God.

Rebecca:
But this comes in a mug that she could microwave the soup in. And it’s amazing, like you can send it to anyone who’s sick or maybe they just need a little care. They have also. You can do it with holla. You could do it with mac and cheese. You could do with both. And they ship all around the country. It comes in this awesome box. It basically says, like, somebody loves you, but it’s really awesome. I don’t know. It’s really fun. And I had I just wanted to send her chicken soup like it was so sad that she was sick and I didn’t want her just opening like a Khan a progresso from the grocery store. Also, she had nothing to make it in. So this is like genuine homemade chicken soup. So it’s Grandma’s Chicken Soup. You know, it has to be good because there’s like a little old grandma on the box.

Andrea:
It would be almost better if it was bubbies.

Rebecca:
I think there probably is, but is she? It is funny, like her tagline says, My family says I make the most delicious chicken soup this side of the Mississippi and north of Boca.

Andrea:
Oh,

Rebecca:
So I’m like, OK, she’s got to be Jewish.

Andrea:
All right, OK,

Rebecca:
She’s just not doing Bobby

Andrea:
Not

Rebecca:
Because

Andrea:
Doing

Rebecca:
She

Amy:
Did.

Rebecca:
Figures

Andrea:
The baby

Rebecca:
No

Andrea:
Thing,

Rebecca:
One no one outside of, like, the Northeast knows what that is.

Andrea:
Right? Right, which, by

Rebecca:
So

Andrea:
The way, means grandma.

Rebecca:
You write in Yiddish. So anyway, Grandma’s

Andrea:
That

Rebecca:
Chicken

Andrea:
Is such

Rebecca:
Soup.

Andrea:
An awesome thing you’re doing for her. Rebecca, that’s such

Amy:
But

Andrea:
A mom

Amy:
How sad

Andrea:
Thing.

Amy:
Is it that she’s like in this bear

Rebecca:
I

Amy:
Apartment

Rebecca:
Have to tell

Amy:
Without

Rebecca:
You,

Amy:
Utensils?

Rebecca:
I mean, I knew and when she when she was moving onto campus that getting covid was a possibility, but I never really thought about what it feels like if your kid gets sick that far away from you.

Amy:
Yeah.

Rebecca:
And I mean, she only has a cold, but, you know, when she her friend tested positive and then she had a sore throat and then she I was like, oh, my God. Like, am I going to fly there? And I couldn’t even see her anyway if I did. Like, you’re just sort of all of a sudden they’re adults and they have to, like, get the medicine delivered and call health services and check. I don’t know, all of a sudden felt very far away. So

Amy:
I

Rebecca:
I was

Amy:
Don’t

Rebecca:
Trying

Amy:
Care how

Rebecca:
To do

Amy:
Old

Rebecca:
Something.

Amy:
You are when you’re sick, you want

Andrea:
You

Amy:
Your

Andrea:
Need

Amy:
Mom.

Andrea:
Your mama.

Rebecca:
I know. And also, like, they moved her to a weird apartment, quarantine house apartments. And I told Amy before show started, they come in a golf cart and they take you away.

Andrea:
Oh, my God,

Rebecca:
They

Andrea:
Did they give

Rebecca:
Yeah.

Andrea:
You time to pack?

Rebecca:
They give you an hour

Andrea:
Oh,

Rebecca:
To pack, basically.

Andrea:
It’s like being

Rebecca:
And.

Andrea:
Fired.

Rebecca:
Yes.

Andrea:
It’s.

Rebecca:
And they give you a packing list and you’re like she’s like shoving her. I said to her, bring your own duvet. You’re going to want your own sheets. And she was like, thank God I brought it home like I told you, like, you

Amy:
Knomo.

Rebecca:
Know, but you know that she’s just in this apartment. And I mean, she has friends there because obviously they’re all together because they’re all contact us together.

Andrea:
Oh, my God.

Rebecca:
But it’s a very weird thing. It’s just very weird. She’s called us more in the past three days. And I’ve heard from her all semester,

Amy:
Oh.

Rebecca:
I think. But it’s lonely. It’s weird.

Andrea:
Yeah.

Rebecca:
Anyway, that is our show for today. Those are bites. We will have links to everything we talked about today on the show at Parenting Bytes dot com. You can also go to our show page at Facebook, dot com slash Parenting Bytes, where you will find links to our episodes. You can leave us comments. Tell us what you’d like us to talk about. Tell us what you think of the Constitution. Tell us how voting went. I’m diam. The voting stories are fascinating to me. People waiting in line for three hours, four hours like

Amy:
Ridiculous

Rebecca:
I love it. Dedication.

Amy:
Dedication, but also ridiculous.

Rebecca:
Ridiculous. Yeah, early voting. There’s not enough of it in New York. So it’s like a whole other story. But anyway, please rate reviews, subscribe and share wherever you are listening to us now and until next week. Happy parenting.

Andrea:
Bye.

Amy:
Bye.

Rebecca:
Hey, this is our Parenting Bytes disclaimer, everything we talk about on the show is our own opinion, any products we recommend, it’s our own personal recommendation for entertainment purposes only. If you buy something through our affiliate links or you just happen to buy or see or read or watch something that we recommended, it’s at your own risk.

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